Turkic vocalism revisited

Previously I wrote about the system of Proto-Turkic vowels as consisting of 8 qualities spanned by features of height, frontness and rounding with three additional phonemes sometimes suggested: /ia/, /e/ and /*ë/.


The first phoneme is reflected identically to *a, except it caused palatalization in Chuvash, so that we have[1]:

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Mongolic sedentary agricultural vocabulary

It is sometimes heard that Proto-Indo-European homeland couldn’t have been the Ponto-Caspian steppe, as Yamnaya people were pastoralist nomads, while PIE contains words that betray knowledge of farming technology (such as ploughs and fields). To do away with this argument, I list here the inherited farming vocabulary of the Mongols, the quintessential nomads.

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